1. Tithi (Lunar date)
Tithi is the lunar date. There are thirty tithis in a lunar month. A Tithi is also a measure of separation of the Moon and Sun from each other. Each Tithi has its own independent planetary lord. Persons born under different Tithis have different characteristics. For example, a person born on full moon day (poornima) will have stronger characteristics of the moon than a person born on new moon day (amavasya).
The Tithis are divided into five groups:
1. Nanda (Ananda or Joyous) tithis – Prathipada (1st), Shasti (6th) and Ekadashi (11th) bestows happiness and joy
2. Bhadra (Arogya or Mangala or Healthy) tithis – Dwitiya (2nd), Saptami (7th) and Dwadashi (12th) good for stating new work
3. Jaya (Victory) Tithis –Tuesday Tritiya (3rd), Ashtami (8th ) and Trtayodashi (13th) good for winning over enemies
4. Rikkta (Loss or Nashta) Tithis – Saturday Chathurthi (4th), Navami (9th) and Chaturdasi (14th) not good for any important work, so it is avoided
5. Poorna (Sampoorna – Full Moon or New Moon) Tithis –Thursday Panchami (5th), Dashami (10th) and Amavasya (15th)(New Moon) or Poornima (15th) very good to complete all jobs
Note : There are 4 important tithis which do not require any muhurtam, since each of the entire tithi is considered good. Any important work like wedding etc. can be done on these tithis. These are:
1 Chaitra Shukla Pratipada (Prathama)
2 Akshya Tritiya
3 Vijaya Dasami
4 Kartika Shukla Pratipada (Prathama)
However, Rahukalam, Yamagandam and Gulika Kalam should be avoided even on these tithis.
2. Nakshatra (Lunar constellation)
In vedic astrology, the zodiac is divided into twenty-seven equal parts of 13 degrees and 20 minutes each which are called Nakshatras. Each Nakshatra or lunar constellation is governed by its planetary lord. To put it differently, Nakshatras are the stellar constellations or Lunar mansions. Literally this word means “that which does not decay.”
There are twenty-seven Nakshatras considered in Vedic Astrology. Each one of them has thirteen degree and twenty minutes of the zodiac. Nakshatra can be known with help of degrees of Moon in a particular sign at the time of birth.
The Nakshatras influence the quality of the Rashi in which they are positioned. The sequence of the 27 Nakshatras begins with Ashwini Nakshatra in Mesha Rashi.
Each Nakshatra has a planetary lord used for Vimsottari Dasa and K.P. calculations. The years assigned to the signs are the Mahadasa durations of Vimsottari Dasa.
Nakshatras Lord Years
1. Aswini 10. Magha 19. Moola —–> Ketu 7
2. Bharani 11. Poorvaphalguni 20. Poorvashadha Venus 20
3. Krittika 12. Uttaraphalguni 21. Uttarashadha Sun 6
4. Rohini 13. Hasta 22. Sravana Moon 10
5. Mrigasira 14. Chitra 23. Dhanista Mars 7
6. Ardra 15. Swati 24. Satabhisha Rahu 18
7. Punarvasu 16. Visakha 25. Poorvabhadra Jupiter 16
8. Pushyami 17. Anuradha 26. Uttarabhadra Saturn 19
9. Aslesha 18. Jyeshta 27. Revati Mercury 17
Nakshtra also indicate Yoni, Gan and Nadi of an individual.
There are 14 Yonis (animal symbols) in Vedic astrology assigned to nakshatras :
Aswini, Satabhisha Horse
Swati, Hasta Buffalo
Dhanista, Poorvabhadra Lion
Bharani, Revati Elephant
Krittika, Pushyami Sheep
Poorvashadha, Sravana Monkey
Uttarashadha (Abhijit) Mongoose
Rohini, Mrigasira Serpent
Anuradha, Jyeshta Deer
Ardra, Moola Dog
Punarvasu, Aslesha Cat
Magha, Purvaphalguni Rat
Chitra, Visakha Tiger
There are 3 Ganas
1. Deva: Divine
2. Manushya: Human
3. Rakshas: Demon
Ganas assigned to the Nakshatras:
Aswini, Mrigasira, Punarvasu, Pushyami,
Hasta, Swati, Anuradha, Sravana, Revati —-> Deva
Bharani, Rohini, Ardra,
Poorvaphalguni, Uttaraphalguni, Poorvashadha,
Uttarashadha, Poorvabhadra, Uttarabhadra —> Manushya
Krittika, Aslesha, Magha, Chitra, Visakha,
Jyeshta, Moola, Dhanista, Satabhisha —-> Rakshas
There are 3 Nadis
1. Adi: Vata
2. Madhya: Pitta
3. Antya: Kapha (or Shleshma)
Nadis assigned to Nakshatras:
Aswini, Ardra, Punarvasu, Uttaraphalguni,
Hasta, Jyeshta, Moola, Satabhisha, Poorvabhadra Adi (Vata)
Bharani, Mrigasira, Pushyami, Poorvaphalguni,
Chitra, Anuradha, Poorvashadha, Dhanista,
Uttarabhadra Madhya (Pitta)
Krittika, Rohini, Aslesha, Magha, Swati,
Visakha, Uttarashadha, Sravana, Revati Antya (Kapha)
It should be clear that each Nakshatra has specific and distinct qualities viz. gun, gana type etc. For example:
Nakshatra Lord Guna Gana Type
———- —- —- —– —-
1 Ashvini Ketu Tama Deva Dharma
2 Bharani Venus Raja Manushya Artha
3 Kritika Sun Raja Rakshasa Kama
4 Rohini Moon Raja Manushya Moksha
Some nakshatras are “fixed” and “movable.” So, moon in a fixed Nakshatra indicates stability, whereas moon in a movable Nakshatra indicates change. This is why a fixed Nakshatra is preferred in a muhurta for building a house, while a movable Nakshatra is better for starting a journey. Avoid your janma nakshatra (birth star) for all good works.
Dagdha Nakshatras: The following Nakshatras are considered inauspicious for commencing any new work or venture, if they fall on the days as given below:
Sunday – Bharani
Monday – Chitra
Tuesday – Uttarashadha
Wednesday – Dhanishtha
Thursday – Uttaraphalguni
Friday – Jyeshtha
Saturday – Revati
Panchaka Nakshatras: The following five Nakshatras are said to have five defects (Panchaka dosha). These nakshatras are called panchak nakshtras as a group. They are Dhanishta, Satabhisha, Poorva bhadrapada, Uttara bhadrapada and Revati. Solemnising marriages and starting other important works are avoided in these nakshatras.
Gand Mool or Gandaat Nakshatras:
Three nakshatras of Ketu viz. Ashwini, Magha, Moola and three nakshatras of Mercury viz. Ashlesha, Jyeshtha and Rewati are called Gand Moola Nakshatras or Gandaat Nakshatras. When a child is born with its native moon in any of these six nakshatras, then these nakshatras assume special significance and the child is said to be born in gand mool nakshatra. Usually these nakshatras are considered inauspicious for births. Gand Mool is one of the Arisht Yoga. Arisht means suffering, problems so “not so auspicious.” The effect of being born in these gand mool nakshatras under various quarters (pads or charans) is given below:
Effect of native’s birth in Gandaat nakshatras:
1. Ashwini Nakshatra:
First quarter : Harmful for its father.
Second quarter : Creates circumstances involving expenditure but gets comforts in life.
Third quarter : Causes much travelling and gains from friends.
Fourth quarter : Like a king but not good for native’s health.
2. Magha Nakshatra:
First quarter : Harmful for mother & father.
Second quarter : Harmful and causes problems to native’s father.
Third quarter : Comforts in native’s life.
Fourth quarter : Health, wealth and gains in native’s life. Good education.
3. Moola Nakshatra:
First quarter : Harmful for father.
Second quarter : Harmful for mother.
Third quarter : Losses of wealth.
Fourth quarter : mixed results, gets pleasures / comforts and some losses of wealth.
4. Ashlesha Nakshatra:
First quarter : Some losses of wealth.
Second quarter : Harmful for brother and some wealth losses for parents.
Third quarter : Harmful for mother & father.
Fourth quarter : Harmful for father.
5. Jyeshtha Nakshatra:
Frst quarter : Harmful for elder brother.
Second quarter : Harmful for younger brother.
Third quarter : Harmful for father.
Fourth quarter : Losses in general to the native.
6. Rewati Nakshatra:
First quarter : The native would be like a king.
Second quarter : Powerful like a minister, some loss of property.
Third quarter : Wealth and riches.
Fourth quarter : Harmful for mother & father.
Note : According to astrologers, remedial measures should be undertaken if a child is born in these nakshatras. Usually, on the 27th day from birth, “nakshatra shanti pooja” (ritual worship for nakshatra) should be performed.
Some astrologers hold a different view and consider Moola, Jyestha and Ashlesha more inauspicious. As per Jyotish Tatwa, starting 5 hours of Ashwini, magha and Moola and ending 5 hours of Moola, Jyeshtha and Ashlesha are gand mool nakshatras.
Gand Mool Nakshatra – a myth ? It is noteworthy that the classical texts on astrology do not mention the bad effects of gand mool nakshatras. It is not known why or how these ill effects came into the realm of Indian astrology. Out of the 27 nakshatras, gand mool nakshtras are six (approximately 20%). This implies that 20% of the population of the world is born under gand mool nakshatras and therefore, inauspicious. More importantly, each nakshatra remains for nearly 24 hours. Is it believable that all children born during these 24 hours will be inauspicious? Many great people are known to have born in the Gand Mool nakshatras like Jawahar Lal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi, Devanand etc. So cklearly, this aspect of nakshtras needs a thorough research. It should not be followed blindly without considering the strength of the natal horocope.
Tara: A unique Vedic system is followed in Muhurtha Astrology, Horary Astrology and predictive astrology. In the system, Nakshtaras (Stars) are grouped into nine sub-groups. Each sub-group covers three stars and has a specific name of ‘Tara’ preceded by a word which signifies benefic or malefic nature.
The nine Taras (Stars) by their individual names are:
1. Janma (Birth) Tara – The Janma (birth star) Nakshatra, the 10th from Janma nakshatra also known as Karna nakshatra and the 19th from Janma nakshatra known as Adhana nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Not good.
2. Sampat Tara – The 2nd the 11th and the 20th Nakshatras counted from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Very good.
3. Vipat Tara – The 3rd, the 12th and the 21st stars counted from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Bad.
4. Kshema Tara – The 4th, the 13th and the 22nd Nakshatras counted from the janama nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Good.
5. Pratyak Tara – The 5th, the 14th, and the 23rd nakshatras from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Not good.
6. Sadhaka Tara – The 6th, the 15th, and the 24th nakshatras from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Very good.
7. Nidhana Tara – The 7th, the 16th , and the 25th nakshatras from the Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Completely Bad.
8. Mitra Tara – The 8th, the 17th and the 26th nakshatras from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Good.
9. Ati or Parama Mitra Tara – The 9th, the 18th and the 27th nakshatras from Janma nakshatra constitute this Tara. Significance : Good.
Tara bala: Tara Bala is used to find the suitability of muhurta. Tara bala indicates the strength provided by nakshatras (stars) to your birth star. Nakshatra / star of moon at the time of birth is known as birth star. Method to find Tara bala is this : Count from your birth nakshatra to nakshatra of the muhurta day. Counting from the birth nakshatra; if the number is 1-3-5-7-10-12-14-16-19-21-23-25, then it is not suitable. For example: If the birth nakshatra is swati, and today’s nakshatra is ashwini, then, counting from swati to ashwini gives us the number 14, which is not a good tara bala. Therefore, this nakshatra should be avoided. The simple way to calculate tara bala is this: The number obtained (by calculating position of the muhurata nakshatra from the Janma nakshatra), is divided by 9. If the remainder is 2,4,6,8,9 or 0 then the tara bala is good otherwise it is bad.
3. Vaar (Day of the Week)
There are seven days in a week and each day is named after its governing planet. The days Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday, are ruled by the seven planets of Astrology – Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn respectively. Since, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are governed by benefic planets, they are generally favourable for all auspicious undertakings. For surgery, Tuesday is favourable because it is governed by mars – the significator of wounds or injuries.
A Yog is obtained from the sum of the Nirayna Longitude of the Moon and Sun and the sum is divided into 27 parts of 13°20′ each. The first yog ( Viskumbh) ends when the sum is 13°20′. Second Yog ( Priti) ends when it is 26°40′ and so on
There are 27 yogas, namely:
1. Vishkumbha 2. Priti 3. Ayushman
4. Saubhagya 5. Shobhana 6. Atiganda
7. Sukarama 8. Dhriti 9. Shoola
10. Ganda 11. Vridhi 12. Dhruva
13. Vyaghata 14. Harshana 15. Vajra
16. Sidhi 17. Vyatipata 18. Vriyana
19. Paridhi 20. Shiva 21. Sidha
22. Sadhya 23. Shubha 24. Shukla
25. Brahma 26. Indra 27. Vaidhriti
For all important works, avoid Vyatipata, Vaidriti, Parigha, Vishkumbha, Vajra, Shoola, Atiganda and Vyagata yogas
Half of Tithi is called `Karna’. A Karna is completed when the Nirayana longitude of the Moon gains every 6° on that of Sun. In each Tithi there are two Karans covering the two halves of the Tithi.
There are 11 karnas in total. Four of them occur just once a month and are called the Fixed Karanas: Kintughna, Chatushpada, Sakuni and Naga.
The other seven are movable Karanas. They follow one another in a fixed rotation: Bava, Balava, Kaulava, Taitila, Gara, Vanija and Vishti (bhadra).
Each of the Karanas is said to have its own influence and interpretation. ‘Vishti’ is considered the most inauspicious karana. No important or new work is done during the period of this karana.